1.10 Separation techniques

 Students should:

1.10 describe these experimental techniques for the separation of mixtures:

  • simple distillation
  • fractional distillation
  • filtration
  • crystallisation
  • paper chromatography

Each technique listed here is a method which can be used for the separation of mixtures of substances. Work through each method in turn .

1.10 Simple distillation

Distillation is used to separate liquids from one another.  Visit this page to see distillation in the laboratory and look at an industrial scale process.
https://mychem.co.uk/index.php/igcse-chemistry/principles-of-chemistry/elements-compounds-and-mixtures/distillation

1.10 Fractional distillation

 Find out about fractional distillation ; why it is different from simple distillation and how it can be used industrially
https://mychem.co.uk/index.php/igcse-chemistry/principles-of-chemistry/elements-compounds-and-mixtures/fractional-distillation

1.10 Crystallisation

Crystallisation can be used to separate a solid solute from its solvent. Re-crystallisation is used to purify samples obtained in the laboratory. But what is a crystal? 
https://mychem.co.uk/index.php/igcse-chemistry/principles-of-chemistry/states-of-matter/crystallisation

1.10 Filtration

Filtration is a simple technique used to separate insoluble solids from a solution. Recrystallisation is used as a laboratory  purification technique. 
https://mychem.co.uk/index.php/igcse-chemistry/principles-of-chemistry/states-of-matter/separation-techniques

1.10 Chromatography

Chromatography is another important separation technique. Several different types of chromatography exist.  
https://mychem.co.uk/index.php/igcse-chemistry/principles-of-chemistry/elements-compounds-and-mixtures/1-10-1-13-chromatography