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In this experiment we changed the temperature of the solutions.

We controlled:

We measured the time taken for the cross under the cup to completely disappear (relative to human perception ).

​The purpose of this experiment was to see if the temperature of a reaction could alter the rate of that reaction. 

We set up four beakers containing sodium thiosulphate solution and heated them to varying temperatures from left to right, 30oC, 20oC, 11oC and 5oC. Then we poured in dilute phosphoric acid. The acid was added right to left. As the acid is added to the 5o solution and a stopwatch is started. Each time the acid is added to a solution the start time is recorded on the table below. The end time is recorded when the cross under the cup is no longer visible.

​The table to the right shows the different solutions, the time the acid was added, the end time and the total number of seconds it took for the solution to become too cloudy to see the cross. 

This graph shows that as the temperature increases the time taken for the reaction to occur decreases. This shows that the rate of reaction increases as the temperature increases.

When the time is large we can say that the rate is low. When the time is small we can say that the rate is high

This makes the rate inversely proportional to the time taken.

This graph shows the rate of the reaction vs the temperature the graph shows a positive correlation between the two. This indicates that a higher temperature will result in a higher rate of reaction.

To see the effect of temperature more clearly we calculate a value of rate by using 1/t. One divided by time.

​The aim of this was to test to see if the concentration of an acid affected the rate of reaction. In this experiment, we used baking soda and different concentrations of limescale remover (phosphoric acid). 

On the left, we see the baking soda in the upper row of numbered cups and our phosphoric acid and water in different concentrations in the bottom row of cups. 5.0g of baking soda is measured into each cup.

There are different ratios of water to acid in each of the bottom rows of cups.The numbers shown are the volume in cm3 of each substance.

From left to right there is a 100% acid on the far left followed by 75%, 50% and finally 25%.

measuring mass decrease against time is a simple method for monitoring the rate of a reaction

​In the experiment, we place our cup of baking soda on the scale and zero the scale. Then we start a stopwatch as we pour our acid solution into the cup and taking the first measure on the scale when all the mixture is added in. Every fifteen seconds we take a new reading until sixty seconds have elapsed. This gives us five readings at the end. 

When we've done this for each set of cups, we take the final mass value at sixty seconds away from the first mass value at zero to find out the difference in mass ( in g).  Dividing the mass change by the time ( in this case, 60 s) gives us a value for the average rate of reaction in grams per second (g/s). 

Baking soda reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide gas.

On the left are the results of the experiment. The bottom two rows are the average rate of reaction and the percentage concentration. Using this and the graphs below we can see a positive gradient of the concentration to the rate of reaction. This is strong evidence to suggest that the rate of reaction is proportional to the concentration of the acid. 

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Water is an odourless, colourless liquid. So are many other chemicals .

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Water has no obvious smell.  Water has no taste and water is colourless.

Water has a neutral pH value ( pH 7).

Many other chemical substances have similar properties . We therefore need to find a chemiscal test for water.  

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When water is added to anhydrous (white) copper sulfate the copper sulfate turns blue and gives off heat. This is a reversible reaction meaning that if we heat the blue hydrated copper sulfate water will boil off and the copper sulfate will turn white.

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​To test for carbon dioxide. the test is to force the sample that you believe may be carbon dioxide in to a solution of lime water. if the sample does contain carbon dioxide then the solution will turn cloudy, if it does not then the sample cannot contain carbon dioxide.

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Oxygen is a  very reactive gas. It makes up approximately 20%  of our atmosphere.  


​The standard test for oxygen is to place a glowing splint into a test tube that may contain the gas.

If the splint glows brighter and/or relights into flame then it is a positive result for oxygen.

​Hydrogen is a flammable gas. It burns in air to produce water.

A convenient test for hydrogen is to put a lighted splint in the mouth of a test tube full of the gas . The gas will burn with a characteristic squeaky pop if hydrogen is present.

Hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel. 

When hydrogen burns in air it combines with oxygen to form water.

This reaction releases energy and it therefore an example of an exothermic reaction 

Some squeaky pops 

​Task 1.

Watch the video to see and hear the students using hydrogen to make some squeaky pops.

Are all squeaky pops the same?

Try to explain your answer.


Task 2.

Find out and write about three ways to make hydrogen gas. In each case say what the reactants are, what the products are and   write down chemical equations for the reactions.

Task 3.

Some say that hydrogen is a perfect fuel since it is not polluting.

Explain why hydrogen is not pollution when it burns.

Others say that hydrogen is not really a clean fuel. Can you explain why they can make this claim? 

The periodic table lists the elements in order of increasing atomic number

​The modern periodic table provides a list of all the known elements categorized in increasing order of increasing atomic number

Each row across the periodic table is known as a period.

Each column is known as a group.

The period number tells us the number of occupied electron shells ion a given atom. The group number shows the number of electrons in the outermost shell of the atom.

The electrons in an atom arrange themselves in shells ( or levels) around the nucleus. The electrons fill the innermost shells first . Each shell can contain a maximum number of electrons. For GCSE and IGCSE we use a simplified model of electron shells. 

This model works well for explaining the properties of the first 20 elements in the periodic table  - a more complex model is needed to explain the structure of atoms above atomic number 20.

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Electron shells have a maximum number of electrons.

Working out  electron configurations 

A carbon atom has 6 protons and therefore 6 electronsThe electrons are arranged in two shells; 2 electrons in the first shell and 4 electrons in the second shell. The electron configuration of a carbon atom can be therefore represented as: 2, 4 

Carbon atoms have an electron configuration of 2,4

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Ruby is a crystalline form of Aluminium Oxide

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent particles (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered structure

How do you know when a substance is crystalline?
Metal Crystals

Bismuth Crystals.

Metals will form  crystalline structures because their atoms can bond together in a highly organised fashion

​Crystals can form when a molten solid cools and solidifies. They can also form when a saturated solution is cooled. This happens because the solubility of most solid solutes  decreases as the temperature is lowered. 

The solute can no longer stay in solution and therefore forms a solid precipitate. The precipitate can be crystalline.

Crystallisation can therefore be used to separate a solid solute from its solvent.

Pure crystal 

Task 1
Watch  the video and answer the following:
  1. When recrystallising in order to purify a solid, how much solvent is used
  2. There is a mistake in the apparatus set up at the beginning of the video. Describe the mistake and explain why it would be dangerous to heat the apparatus as shown.
  3. Explain why the filter funnel is heated by a hot water jacket?
  4. Why do crystals then form in the filtrate?
  5. How are these crystals then separated?

The crystals obtained this way can then be dissolved and recrystallised to improve the purity further.​

Crystallisation close up 

Task 2

This video helps you to visualise how molecules ( or atoms) can stick together to form an orderly arrangement and therefore form crystals.

  1. What shape is used in the video to represent the sugar molecules ?
  2. The four images below show four different ways of "modelling" the arrangement of atoms or molecules forming a crystalline structure. Consider each model in turn. For each model try to say what is good about it and what might be "inaccurate" about it. This could be presented as a table of strengths and weaknesses.
  3. It is often said that crystallising something slowly will produce lager and more regular crystals. Can you explain this?
Spheres can be used to model the way atoms and molecules might stack together.

In this video you see how scientist use bubbles in a soap solution to model the behaviour of particles in a crystal. 

Fractional distillation in the laboratory


A fractionating column can be added to a simple distillation apparatus. The column is used to achieve a good separation of one liquid from another. 

The column is often packed with glass beads which cause repeated condensation and evaporation. This can give a much purer condensate ( product) than when using simple distillation.

By controlling the temperature carefully the different fractions ( components) in the mixture of liquids can be separated from each other.

The most volatile components of the mixture will be the first to be extracted.

Industrial fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into its different fractions. The most volatile fractions rise to the top of the column.

Task 1. Simple or fractional?

Use the information on this post and the one called "simple distillation" to explain the differences between Simple and Fractional distillation.

Task 2. From thin air

Watch the first  2 minutes 25 seconds of this video.

Answer  the following questions:

  • ​what are the main components of air?
  • what is the percentage of each component - illustrate this with an appropriate chart
  • what are the main processes required for the separation of the components in air?
  • explain what liquefaction is. How is it achieved?
  • how is liquid air separated into its different fractions?
  • explain why this process works . Use the following words: volatile, boiling point , separate, evaporate. 
Water cycle - Distillation on a global scale

Distillation: the action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling

The water cycle.. 

Distillation on a very large scale...

You will be very familiar with the ideas illustrated in this graphic explaining the water cycle. The continual evaporation of water ( the solvent) from the sea ( the solution) - followed by cooling and condensation of the water vapour - means that the water that falls on the land is "distilled" and free from the salt 

Task 1

Explain in no more than 50 words why the water cycle makes the sea salty.

words to use:

dissolve, soluble, volatile, evaporate, condense

Task 2:

Find out about the salt content of the Dead Sea. Write down your findings and explain them.

Simple distillation in the laboratory

This video shows how the water cycle can be simulated in the laboratory.  In this example you can see pure water being distilled from salty water. Watch the video closely.

Task 3: 

  • The word "retort" is used several times. Explain in your own words what a retort is .
  • Explain why the water condenser has cold water fed in at the bottom and not the top.
  • Distillation is one way of making drinking water from seawater. This is often an unfeasibly expensive way of producing drinking water. Explain why.
Simple laboratory distillation

That's the spirit.. 

Alcoholic spirits are prepared by distillation

Fermentation can be used to produce a dilute solution such as beer or wine. These solutions can be further distilled to produce a spirit which contains much more alcohol and is consequently much more intoxicating.

A vintage Industrial scale distillation.

​Task 4.

Study this engraving of the distillation of ethanol. Make a copy of the drawing and label it with the same labels as the other simple distillation diagram.

Learn the terms: 

pure water can be extracted from water based inks by using distillation

Task 5. 

Study the video carefully. Two students are using distillation to extract pure water from some water soluble ink.

The students have made at least three deliberate mistakes.

Describe the mistakes and explain what they should have done instead in order to complete the task safely and correctly.

A colourful Chromatogram.

Chromatography is another important separation technique.  Several different types of chromatography exist. 

All chromatography relies upon the idea that different solutes have different solubilities. This fact is used in chromatography to separate and identify the separate components in a mixture. 

Here we will consider the simplest Chromatogaphic method - paper chromatography.

Chromatography gets its name ( Chroma="colour" in Greek) from the fact that mixtures which initially look like one uniform colour can be separated to produce many different colours.
Not all chromatograms are coloured.

In the Lab

All chromatography involves a mobile phase and a stationary phase.  The mobile phase moves through the static phase. The solutes which are more soluble (in the mobile phase) will travel faster through it than other less soluble solutes.

Task 1. Watch this video carefully and write answers to the questions:

  1. In paper chromatography what is the stationary phase? 
  2. In the video what is the name of the mobile phase
  3. Name the four substances which are separated from the spinach leaf extract. List them in order of their solubility in the mobile phase. ( put the most soluble first)
Butterfly or ink blobs?

​A slightly different chromatographic method.

A paper filter

Filter first  

Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium ( a filter) through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate.

Filtration is a simple technique used  to separate insoluble solids from a solutionSometimes it is the filtrate that we want to isolate ( as in the making of a cup of coffee), on other occasions it is the residue that is left behind in the filter  that is of value.

In the laboratory 

suction filtration

​In the laboratory suction filtration can speed up the process and help to dry the insoluble residue on the filter paper.

Task 1

Make a copy of the suction filtration diagram. Add labels to the diagram to help explain why a vacuum pump is used.

What's the connection?

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figure 2
figure 3
figure 4

Task 2. Compare the four images above. What is the connection between all four? Which one is the odd one out  and why ?

(Hint: There is more than one acceptable answer - so long as you can justify it..)

Three of the Noble gases

Elements - close up

Here we look at the elements and some compounds - close up. 

Some elements (non-metal) have atoms which join up with one another to form small molecules. Some other non- metal elements have atoms which join up to form giant covalent lattices.

A monatomic gas

The particles which make up the the Noble Gases are single atoms; they do not join up with one another. They are monatomic. 

These atoms are very unreactive and do not easily form compounds

Simple molecular elements. They are often gases at room temperature but can be liquid or easily melted solids.

A solid element with small molecules
A gaseous element with small molecules

 Giant lattices. These elements form giant lattices have high melting points and form crystalline structures

A giant covalent lattice
A metallic element

 Compounds - close up

A compound containing small molecules
A compound which forms a giant covalent lattice
A compound which is made of a giant ionic lattice
A compound made of long chain molecules

Sun and air

​Study the seaside image for a few seconds . Try to describe it:

You might say that the image shows : A calm sea,  clear blue sky, bright sunshine and a perfectly smooth beach.

You could describe it in terms of the states of matter visible:

​SOLID ​Sand
​LIQUID ​Sea
​​GAS​Air 
​GAS + PLASMA​Sun

But as a chemist you might be asked to classify each of these four components as either mixtures, compounds or elements

You might then go further and identify the atoms which are make up each of those components .

This section will help you to do that.

Mixed or bonded?

A mixture
A mixture

MIXTURE : A mixture is made up of two or more components which although mixed together can be separated by physical means. The components are not chemically combined. 

A compound
Pure salt is a compound

​COMPOUND : A compound is always made up of two or more different elements in definite proportions joined by chemical bonds. The elements cannot be separated by physical means

The Dead Sea is below sea level, this means that it does not drain so that although the water evaporates, the salt will stay, this means that the dead sea is a saturated solution

You can see this because salt crystals appear around the shore line.

The oceans become salty for the same reason - soluble salts are washed in to the oceans by rivers. Water from the oceans evaporates - leaving behind the less volatile salts. 

The oceans are not saturated solutions because they are so vast.

The Dead Sea is relatively very small and land locked. 

Evaporation  causes large deposits of solid salt to form around the shore or the Dead Sea 

.The Dead Sea Location

esters

carboxylic acids

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
  • Crude oil is an extremely valuable and increasingly scarce fossil fuel.
  • It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons.
  • The composition of crude oil varies depending upon where in the world it comes from.
  • Crude oil is the principal raw material for the huge petrochemical industry which produces fuels, polymers, pharmaceuticals and many other products.

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5 b) Crude oil

Students will be assessed on their ability to:


5.6 understand that crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
5.7 describe and explain how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions
5.8 recall the names and uses of the main fractions obtained from crude oil: refinery gases, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen
5.9 describe the trend in boiling point and viscosity of the main fractions
5.10 understand that incomplete combustion of fuels may produce carbon monoxide and explain that carbon monoxide is poisonous because it reduces the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen
5.11 understand that, in car engines, the temperature reached is high enough to allow nitrogen and oxygen from air to react, forming nitrogen oxides
5.12 understand that nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are pollutant gases which contribute to acid rain, and describe the problems caused by acid rain
5.13 understand that fractional distillation of crude oil produces more long-chain hydrocarbons than can be used directly and fewer short-chain hydrocarbons than required and explain why this makes cracking necessary
5.14 describe how long-chain alkanes are converted to alkenes and shorter-chain alkanes by catalytic cracking, using silica or alumina as the catalyst and a temperature in the range of 600–700o
C. 

A question of balance

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 Many chemical reactions can be reversed.  

When this happens we can describe a forward reaction and a back reaction.

Sometimes the forward and back reaction take place at equal rates. When this happens an Equilibrium is established

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